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Relatives of the French Bulldog.

For a long time in the most different countries of the world there live dogs with the truncated top jaw. It is very probable, that already in Middle Ages English dogs which were used for persecution of various animals had been delivered to Europe. By that time these dogs already had the modified top jaw that gave them advantage over other dogs in durability of catch and made them really effective fighters. Thus, it is impossible to confirm precisely, what breeds became progenitor for bulldogs, in fact, in different countries, on different continents (in Peru in the 12-th century there were the dogs very similar to the French bulldogs), as a result of mutations there appeared brachycephals. They crossed both among themselves and with other breeds.
In general, the modern bulldogs' origin is a mystery. Gradually mankind began more deliberate in breeding, therefore standards of breeds were created giving start to a thoroughbred cultivation. Owing to the standard, it is possible to confirm, that the dog belongs to a certain breed. But we are interested in relatives of the French bulldog which are presented further.


THE ENGLISH BULLDOG.

This breed became a symbol of the whole nation. Owing to English selectors it is the most paradoxical in the world. In fact, prominent features of their structure are considered as defects for other breeds.
The first mentions of these dogs - in 1209. As we know, they were used for persecution of bulls. These severe entertainments have been forbidden in 1835, but dogs have remained, fortunately. Gradually, bulldogs with very short muzzle began to come in fashion (working bulldogs had little bit longer one). And not just their appearance had been changed but also character of these dogs; in fact, furious humor of a fighter was not required any more. As a result ruthless and fierce fighters have turned to charming, friendly and sociable pets.

Height: 12 - 14 inches (30-35 cm.).
Weight: 50 - 55 lbs. (22-25 kg.).
Colors: Uniform color, red brindle, reds; sometimes with a black muzzle.
Coat: Short and smooth.
Temperament: Affectionate, but sometimes stubborn; great with kids.
Care and Exercise:
Regular brushing with a rough cloth and minimal exercise. Care should be taken not to over feed as he would prefer not to take any exercise. Special care to powder his fold and wrinkles and under his tail during hot weather. Should not be over exerted in hot weather. He does not make a good dog for the obedience enthusiast.
Health Issues:
Never leave this dog in a hot car or hot, unventilated area -- they easily overheat. The English Bulldog does drool and snore.
Category: Non-sporting.
Registries: UCA, AKC, CKC, FCI (Group 2), KC (GB).
Living Environment: Indoor.

THE OLDE ENGLISH BULLDOGGE.

This breed has been deduced in the USA in 1970. Fortunately the name of the founder is known. David Livitt who crossed Bull Mastiffs, the American and English bulldogs, Pit-bull Terriers having the purpose to recreate initial, known about 18-th century, the form of the bulldog which was more correct anatomically and was more suitable for work (protection). As the result he'd got a fine guard dog. He is tender to owners and will repulse any who threatens them. But experienced owner may have difficulties with education of this dog, since it is not a lap dog, but big (weight 35-40 kg.), and strong enough both physically, and spiritually. So, the owner is required to have much skill to call the dog for discipline, and the physical superiority over the pupil. This breed is not recognized by FCI, but the USA it is registered by IOEBA.

Height: Males: 17 - 23 inches (43-58 cm.), Females: 15 - 21 inches (38-53cm.).
Weight: 50 - 90 lbs. (22-40 kg.).
Colors: Any color is acceptable.
Coat: Short.
Temperament: Stable and trustworthy.
Care and Exercise:
Regular brushing with a bristle brush or rubbing down his coat with a chamois will keep the coat shiny and clean. Bath only when necessary. Needs a substantial amount of vigorous exercise which needs to be on-leash.
Health Issues: Very healthy; should not have many health problems of the English Bulldog.
Category: Working, guardian.
Registries: IOEBA.
Living Environment: Indoor.

THE AMERICAN BULLDOG.

The breed originates from English bulldogs, brought to the USA in first half of the 18-th century, the least changed since then. It is possible to tell, that American bulldog is the English bulldog before it acquired modern traits. In other words, looking at the modern American, we see that English one in the sample of the beginning of 18-th century. True soldier in his nature , at the same time, very obedient and sane. This breed is universal: can protect, graze cattle, take part in sport competitions, and is simply please its owners by cheerful temper.

Height: Males: 22 - 27 inches (55-68 cm.); Females: 20 - 25 inches (50-63 cm.).
Weight: Males: 75 - 125 lbs. (34-57 kg.); Females: 60 - 100 lbs. (27-45kg.).
Colors: All white, pied, or up to 90% color; brindle or red patches (red is defined as any shades of brindle, brown, red, or tan).
Coat: The coat is short, close, and stiff to the touch.
Temperament:
The essential characteristics of the American Bulldog are those which enable it to work as a hog and cattle catching dog, and a protector of personal property. These tasks require a powerful, agile, confident dog with a large head and powerful jaws. The American Bulldog is a gentle, loving family companion who is fearless enough to face an angry bull or a human intruder; good with children, good with pets.
Care and Exercise:
Brush coat with a firm bristle brush or rubber mitt and bathe only when necessary. Puppies should have early socialization.
Health Issues: A very healthy, hardy dog. Some strains have hip dysplasia.
Category: Rare, Working, Guardian.
Registries: UCA, UKC.
Living Environment: Either Indoor or Outdoor.

THE GERMAN BOXER.

Ancestors of boxers originated from dogs used for hunting for bears and wild boars in antiquity. In the 18-th century in Germany there existed Bullenbeisers - large red-colored mastiffs which were used for bulls' persecution. The livestock of these dogs was very polytypic, but despite that, some enthusiasts created a new breed in 30 years among a very piebald stock, inflowing blood of different dogs, including English bulldogs. In 1895 German boxers were presented at a dog-show for the first time. And since the beginning of the 20-th century they became so popular, that exceeded other dogs at shows. Now Boxer is one of the most known breeds in the world. These dogs are typical sportsmen, dexterous, strong, tireless, are easy in training.

Height: Males: 22.5 to 25 inches (57-63 cm.); Females: 21 to 23.5 inches (53-60 cm.).
Weight: 65 - 70 lbs. (28-32 kg.).
Colors: The colors are fawn and brindle. White markings are allowed, but no more than 1/3 of the coat.
Coat: Short, shiny, lying smooth and tight to the body.
Temperament:
Instinctively a "hearing" guard dog, his bearing is alert, dignified and self-assured. In the show ring his behavior should exhibit constrained animation. With family and friends his temperament is fundamentally playful, yet patient and stoical with children. Deliberate and wary with strangers, he will exhibit curiosity but, most importantly, fearless courage if threatened. However, he responds promptly to friendly overtures honestly rendered. His intelligence, loyal affection and tractability to discipline make him a highly desirable companion.
Care and Exercise: The Boxer's coat is short and only requires a quick weekly brushing.
Health Issues:
Usually healthy. May have problems with heart murmurs, skin tumors, digestive problems and hypothyroidism. Boxers are predisposed towards tumors that arise near the heart and lungs.
Category: Working.
Registries: UCA, AKC, CKC, FCI (Group 2), UKC.
Living Environment: Either Indoor or Outdoor.

BOSTON-TERRIER.

It is very similar to the French bulldog, but more graceful. The history of this breed begun in 1865 when one American, the inhabitant of Boston brought from England the brindle metis male with a cork-screw tail. Parents of this dog were the white English terrier (father) and the English bulldog (mother). This dog was coupled with a white female and their puppies became the first Boston-terriers (firstly called "the Boston Bull". In 1893 the Boston-terrier club had been organized and the standard of the breed developed. For a long time these dogs were in top ten the most popular breeds in America. These dogs, perhaps, are the most elegant of all relatives of the French bulldogs. They are compact and harmoniously build. Rare in Europe.

Height: 15 - 17 inches (38-43 cm.).
Weight: 10 - 25 lbs. (4,5-11 kg.).
Colors: Brindle, seal, or black with white markings.
Coat: The coat is short, smooth, bright and fine in texture.
Temperament:
The Boston terrier is a friendly and lively dog. The breed has an excellent disposition and a high degree of intelligence, which makes the Boston terrier an incomparable companion.
Care and Exercise: Brush coat with a firm bristle brush or rubber mitt and bathe only when necessary
Health Issues:
Several health issues are of concern in the Boston terrier: cataracts (both juvenile and adult type), cherry eye, slipping patella, deafness, heart murmur, and allergies. Curvature of the spine, called roaching, patella problems may influence the hind feet and cause the dog to lean forward onto the forelegs. This may also be just a structural fault with little consequence to the dog. Many Bostons cannot tolerate excessive heat and humidity due to the shortened muzzle, so hot weather brings the danger of heat exhaustion.
Category: Non-sporting.
Registries: UCA,CKC, FCI, AKC, UKC, KCGB, CKC, ANKC, NKC, NZKC, APRI.
Living Environment: Indoor.

BULL MASTIFF.

The Bullmastiff is strong, endurant and awake dog. He is a perfect guardian of the home and will not back down from a fight. They are rather incredulous to strangers, but loving toward their owner. Bullmastiffs are normally very gentle, cheerful and calm. They make a devoted, gentle companion. They are also known as the "gamekeeper's dog" because they were bred to accompany gamekeepers for the ability to track and overpower a poacher. The breed has appeared by the end of 19-th century by crossing the Mastiff with the Bulldog. He was breed to combine power, speed and a keen sense of smell with the courage of a bulldog. In 1924 the standard was approved and thus officially recognized in England.

Height: 25 - 27 inches (63-69 cm.).
Weight: 90 - 130 lbs. (41-59 kg.).
Colors: Shades of brindle, fawn or red. Slight white marking on the chest is permissible, black muzzle.
Coat: Short, smooth, dense.
Temperament: Loving, courageous, loyal; tolerates children; should be socialized with other animals at an early age.
Care and Exercise:
Minimal brushing of his coat. A good rubdown with a rubber brush or massage glove will remove old dead hairs. Nails should be kept short. Diet and daily exercise need to be balanced to prevent obesity. Daily walks or lost of running space is ideal.
Health Issues: Hip dysplasia, gastric torsion and cancer.
Category: Working.
Registries: UCA, AKC, UKC, ANKC, CKC, FCI (Group 2), KC (GB).
Living Environment: Outdoor.

Except for the bulldog-like dogs our relatives are the breeds obliged by their origin to the English bulldog, but changed so, that in exterior already do not remind the progenitor. Here they are: Bull Terrier, Pit Bull , American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

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